1 theme.inc theme_links($variables)

Returns HTML for a set of links.


$variables: An associative array containing:

  • links: An associative array of links to be themed. The key for each link is used as its CSS class. Each link should be itself an array, with the following elements:

    • title: The link text.
    • href: The link URL. If omitted, the 'title' is shown as a plain text item in the links list.
    • html: (optional) Whether or not 'title' is HTML. If set, the title will not be passed through check_plain().
    • attributes: (optional) Attributes for the anchor, or for the <span> tag used in its place if no 'href' is supplied. If element 'class' is included, it must be an array of one or more class names.

    If the 'href' element is supplied, the entire link array is passed to l() as its $options parameter.

  • attributes: A keyed array of attributes for the UL containing the list of links.
  • heading: (optional) A heading to precede the links. May be an associative array or a string. If it's an array, it can have the following elements:

    • text: The heading text.
    • level: The heading level (e.g. 'h2', 'h3').
    • class: (optional) An array of the CSS classes for the heading.

    When using a string it will be used as the text of the heading and the level will default to 'h2'. Headings should be used on navigation menus and any list of links that consistently appears on multiple pages. To make the heading invisible use the 'element-invisible' CSS class. Do not use 'display:none', which removes it from screen-readers and assistive technology. Headings allow screen-reader and keyboard only users to navigate to or skip the links. See http://juicystudio.com/article/screen-readers-display-none.php and http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG-TECHS/H42.html for more information.

Related topics


core/includes/theme.inc, line 1887
The theme system, which controls the output of Backdrop.


function theme_links($variables) {
  global $language_url;

  $links = (array) $variables['links'];
  $attributes = (array) $variables['attributes'];
  $heading = $variables['heading'];
  $output = '';

  if (!empty($links)) {
    // Prepend the heading to the list, if any.
    if (!empty($heading)) {
      // Convert a string heading into an array, using a H2 tag by default.
      if (is_string($heading)) {
        $heading = array('text' => $heading);
      // Merge in default array properties into $heading.
      $heading += array(
        'level' => 'h2',
        'attributes' => array(),
      // @todo Remove backwards compatibility for $heading['class'].
      if (isset($heading['class'])) {
        $heading['attributes']['class'] = $heading['class'];

      $output .= '<' . $heading['level'] . backdrop_attributes($heading['attributes']) . '>';
      $output .= check_plain($heading['text']);
      $output .= '</' . $heading['level'] . '>';

    $output .= '<ul' . backdrop_attributes($attributes) . '>';

    $num_links = count($links);
    $i = 0;
    foreach ($links as $key => $link) {

      $class = array();
      // Use the array key as class name.
      $class[] = backdrop_html_class($key);
      // Add odd/even, first, and last classes.
      $class[] = ($i % 2 ? 'odd' : 'even');
      if ($i == 1) {
        $class[] = 'first';
      if ($i == $num_links) {
        $class[] = 'last';

      // Handle links.
      if (isset($link['href'])) {
        $is_current_path = ($link['href'] == $_GET['q'] || ($link['href'] == '<front>' && backdrop_is_front_page()));
        $is_current_language = (empty($link['language']) || $link['language']->langcode == $language_url->langcode);
        if ($is_current_path && $is_current_language) {
          $class[] = 'active';
        // Pass in $link as $options, they share the same keys.
        $item = l($link['title'], $link['href'], $link);
      // Handle title-only text items.
      else {
        // Merge in default array properties into $link.
        $link += array(
          'html' => FALSE,
          'attributes' => array(),
        $item = '<span' . backdrop_attributes($link['attributes']) . '>';
        $item .= ($link['html'] ? $link['title'] : check_plain($link['title']));
        $item .= '</span>';

      $output .= '<li' . backdrop_attributes(array('class' => $class)) . '>';
      $output .= $item;
      $output .= '</li>';

    $output .= '</ul>';

  return $output;