1 text.module text_summary($text, $format_id = NULL, $size = 600)

Generate a trimmed, formatted version of a text field value.

If the end of the summary is not indicated using the <!--break--> delimiter then we generate the summary automatically, trying to end it at a sensible place such as the end of a paragraph, a line break, or the end of a sentence (in that order of preference).


$text: The content for which a summary will be generated.

$format_id: The format of the content. If the PHP filter is present and $text contains PHP code, we do not split it up to prevent parse errors. If the line break filter is present then we treat newlines embedded in $text as line breaks. If the htmlcorrector filter is present, it will be run on the generated summary (if different from the incoming $text).

$size: The desired character length of the summary. If omitted, the default value will be used. Ignored if the special delimiter is present in $text.

Return value

The generated summary.:


core/modules/field/modules/text/text.module, line 416
Defines simple text field types.


function text_summary($text, $format_id = NULL, $size = 600) {
  // Find where the delimiter is in the body
  $delimiter = strpos($text, '<!--break-->');

  // If the size is zero, and there is no delimiter, the entire body is the summary.
  if ($size == 0 && $delimiter === FALSE) {
    return $text;

  // If a valid delimiter has been specified, use it to chop off the summary.
  if ($delimiter !== FALSE) {
    return substr($text, 0, $delimiter);

  $format = filter_format_load($format_id);

  // If we have a short body, the entire body is the summary.
  if (backdrop_strlen($text) <= $size) {
    return $text;

  // If the delimiter has not been specified, try to split at paragraph or
  // sentence boundaries.

  // The summary may not be longer than maximum length specified. Initial slice.
  $summary = truncate_utf8($text, $size);

  // Store the actual length of the UTF8 string -- which might not be the same
  // as $size.
  $max_rpos = strlen($summary);

  // How much to cut off the end of the summary so that it doesn't end in the
  // middle of a paragraph, sentence, or word.
  // Initialize it to maximum in order to find the minimum.
  $min_rpos = $max_rpos;

  // Store the reverse of the summary. We use strpos on the reversed needle and
  // haystack for speed and convenience.
  $reversed = strrev($summary);

  // Build an array of arrays of break points grouped by preference.
  $break_points = array();

  // A paragraph near the end of sliced summary is most preferable.
  $break_points[] = array('</p>' => 0);

  // If no complete paragraph then treat line breaks as paragraphs.
  $line_breaks = array('<br />' => 6, '<br>' => 4);
  // Newline only indicates a line break if line break converter
  // filter is present.
  if (isset($format->filters['filter_autop'])) {
    $line_breaks["\n"] = 1;
  $break_points[] = $line_breaks;

  // If the first paragraph is too long, split at the end of a sentence.
  // Typing a number after the ؟ character (Arabic question mark) causes text to
  // be reversed mid-line. That's the reason why the last element in this array
  // may seem odd. It actually produces valid code.
  // See https://github.com/backdrop/backdrop-issues/issues/4546
  $break_points[] = array('. ' => 1, '! ' => 1, '? ' => 1, '。' => 0, '؟ ' => 1);

  // Iterate over the groups of break points until a break point is found.
  foreach ($break_points as $points) {
    // Look for each break point, starting at the end of the summary.
    foreach ($points as $point => $offset) {
      // The summary is already reversed, but the break point isn't.
      $rpos = strpos($reversed, strrev($point));
      if ($rpos !== FALSE) {
        $min_rpos = min($rpos + $offset, $min_rpos);

    // If a break point was found in this group, slice and stop searching.
    if ($min_rpos !== $max_rpos) {
      // Don't slice with length 0. Length must be <0 to slice from RHS.
      $summary = ($min_rpos === 0) ? $summary : substr($summary, 0, 0 - $min_rpos);

  // Clean up any invalid HTML.
  if (function_exists('_filter_htmlcorrector')) {
    $summary = _filter_htmlcorrector($summary);

  return $summary;